Global Inequality: Gender, Racial and Ethnic Inequality


Sociology refers to the study of the relations between people, the statutes, and procedures that govern these interactions by either binding or separating persons, organizations, or societies (Oesamn 45).

Some of the basic sociological concepts that are looked at in the study of sociology include culture, deviance and social control, socialization, bureaucracy and formal organizations in the society, social class and stratification, poverty, racism and discrimination social networks and inequalities that arise from race, gender and ethnicity (American academy of political and social science 45).

Journal Article No. 1. “The Global HIV/AIDS Pandemic, Structural Inequalities, and Politics of International Health”

Summary of the Article

The debate on the gravity of the AIDS pandemic has gradually gone down, and this is as a result of the development of the antiretroviral drugs that have helped in putting the diseases under control (Parker 343). Discrimination of HIV positive patients has been reported to have gone down globally, but the major cause of concern is the inequality in the global infection rates of the virus.

Research has shown that generally, more women and children have been infected and even died of the virus than the men since its emergence; thus, there is a great global disparity in the distribution of the disease (Parker 344).

Reports actually show that the developing countries, especially in Africa, have been the hardest hit by the virus, while international bodies such as the UN and the World Bank have been in the frontline in solving the AIDS pandemic puzzle.

Sociological Concept

This article addresses the concept of inequality in societies. Inequality also refers to disparities, for instance, in the distribution of resources or the effects of a given sociological issue. Inequalities have also led to the creation of few economically powerful nations which control the important decisions of the world.

How the two are related

The article addresses the unequal distribution of HIV infection. The article affirms that the virus seems to be affecting the most vulnerable in societies, and these are the women, the children, and the poor, especially in developing countries. This, therefore, means that more females are affected by the virus than the men, and the developing countries are also affected more than the developed countries; this brings about inequality.

Journal Article No. 2. “Income Inequality and Mortality in US Counties: Does Minority Racial Concentration Matter.”

Summary of the Article

This article is based on research that was done to address a possible relationship between economic inequalities and increased mortality rates among blacks.

The findings of the research were that there is an increased rate of deaths among the economically disadvantaged members of the society, and particularly in the United States, it was shown that the mortality rate is higher among the blacks, which could be as a result of discrimination, poor socioeconomic status, genetic and cultural variations.

However, the research carried out in the exclusive black nations found out that there was an increased mortality rate among the middle class and the poor people (McLaughlin and Stokes 99).

Sociological concept

This article addresses social concepts such as social class and stratification, racism, and discrimination. Racism refers to the act of showing favoritism based on whether the person belongs to the same race as you or not (Roof 128). Discrimination refers to the act of being biased against another person, maybe because of their race, ethnic background, religion, or gender.

How the two are related

The article exposes the cases of racial discrimination in the United States as a possible factor for the increased mortality rates among blacks. It also shows how the governments in the black countries discriminate against the regions occupied by the poor and the middle class. This is through less government investment in health, education, and proper affordable housing for these people, thus exposing them to various risk factors.

Journal article 3. “Interaction and conservation of gender inequality: Considering employment.”

Summary of the Article

Gender inequality is a reality in a number of societies around the world, even in the most developed nations. Such disparities normally occur in the education and employment sectors. This article addresses the issue of gender inequality in employment, which comes as a result of the creation of sex-segregated jobs (Ridgeway 218).

The author also analyses the inequalities that have existed in the distribution of household chores, although he argues that some progress has been made in solving the inequality in the former, but the issue of inequality in employment has never shown any progress.

The sociological concept

The sociological concept in this article is culture and gender inequality. Culture refers to rules and regulations defining a person’s behavior in a community while gender inequality refers to the unequal distribution of resources and opportunities between the men and the women (Oesamn 48)

How the two are related

The article handles the issue of culture and gender inequality. Most of the world culture subordinate women and this could be the reason behind the assumption that household chores are supposed to be done by women. Most women tend to go for the lighter training courses that can only earn them the low paying jobs; the reverse of this is true with the men. This could be the reason why women are paid less than men.

Works Cited

American Academy of political and social science Annals of the American. American Academy of political and social science Annals of the American. New York, A. L. Hummel.1922.

McLaughlin, Diane and Stokes, Shannon. “Income Inequality and Mortality in US Counties: Does Minority Racial Concentration Matter.” American Journal of Public Health, 92 (1): 99-104. 2002.

Oesamn, Astrid. Staging history: Brecht’s social concepts of ideology. New York, Sunny Press. 2003.

Parker, Richard. “The global HIV/AIDS pandemic, structural inequalities and politics of international health.” American Public HealthbAsociation, 92 (3): 343-347. 2002.

Ridgeway, Cecilia. “Interaction and conservation of gender inequality: Considering employment.” American sociological review, 62, 218-235. 1997.

Roof, Wade. Race and residence in American cities. NY, American Academy of political and social science. 1979.

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