Improving Customer Loyalty And Patronage By Implementing Textmining Solutions

This research looks into the text mining activities of several companies on the aspect of text mining, which forms an integral part of improving customer loyalty and patronage. The research hypothesizes that the failure of text mining projects is specifically linked to improving customer loyalty and patronage.

In turn, the creation of the text mining process is significantly influenced by many factors governing company operations such as personnel issues, company policies, and procedures, management support, resources, among others. To illuminate the factors that impact on improving customer loyalty and patronage on text mining, this study will examine several different text mining companies with different customers and markets.


It is imperative for a company to go about outpacing competitors so as to gain, sustain, and multiply customers. In order to acquire a competitive advantage while creating profitable customer relationships, the company needs to dispense more value and satisfaction to focus on customers than competitors do.

They need to enhance their quality and services so that their products are more sought after than those of their competitors. For this purpose, designing a competitive intelligence system is very important, which can be done first by carrying out competitor analysis, and then by establishing competitive marketing strategies. This is done through text mining to understand your customer needs, changing marketing trends, and future prospects (Young, 2003).

After text mining, the best possible prices and timely delivery strategies are laid down. This maintains a positive relationship with the government. As for the frequent buyer points program, this comes under the most effective marketing strategy of customer relationship management.

The internal database system with information on the customer can help the company weigh its customers’ preferences and buying behaviors and prudently administer customer touchpoints so as to understand the customer better, provide them with exceptional customer service, and hence maximize customer loyalty.

The frequent buyer points programs will most essentially help a company to identify its high-value customers and target them better (Bell and Thayer, 1976)

Research Aim

This research paper aims to assess the importance of text mining in relation to improving customer loyalty and patronage. Consequently, the assessment shall be framed in the context of text mining, which shows the flow of implementation activities.

Subsequently, the research shall examine the views and insights from several IT enterprises or companies, which become the basis for an in-depth comparative case study on the subject of text mining and its impact on customer loyalty and patronage.

In determining the influence or impact of customer loyalty and patronage to be the successful accomplishment of text mining, the researcher hopes that the results of the study can become a diagnostic tool to aid IT and text mining and managers develop and execute proper text mining techniques. Ultimately, the research is intended to become a vital source of information to help sustain the growth of the IT industry.

Research Objectives

This research paper intends to accomplish three key objectives. One is to determine the level of importance of requirements specifications to the overall text mining process for IT managers in relation to text mining. Two is to identify the issues or sources of problems that occur in executing text mining.

Three is to provide specific recommendations on how to develop sound and accurate text mining in planning and implementing customer loyalty projects. The researcher believes that this study will not only be important for academic purposes, but also to software companies and developers.

The rationale of the research

In traditional text mining and selling, text mining is made as per the customer’s specifications. However, a problem emerges of how to protect piracy of Software that is not customer tailor-made. The Software is made for general use for al customers. In such a scenario, outsourcing becomes important. Then how does one manage to outsource?

There are success stories about the outsourcing of Software and keeping piracy in check. This project, in order to be successive, will need a number of resources, books for research and literature review, research tools, and design. They will need a budget plan that will enable generating the report and necessary stuff.

There are other technical issues to be dealt with when developing the proposed system. This will include hard wares and soft wares. At the end of the project, the researcher intends to accomplish the objectives of the research. The study will enable the company in question to access the best plan for implementing software outsourcing management.

Review of related literature

Security Monitoring for IT and Data mining Application

Security is a sensitive issue in any organization or business since security lapse can lead to unauthorized access to vital information or financial losses as a result of data manipulation. To avoid this, it is necessary for organizations and businesses to lay out a workable security monitoring plan. Security monitoring plans differ with the type of organization or business since the risks involved are not similar.

For instance, an organization with both internal information technology systems and e-commerce applications may be required to integrate several activities in its security monitoring plan such as initiating the process; establishing context; analyzing risk; evaluating risk; and planning for risk treatment, reporting, implementation and monitoring (Boem, 2000).

The initiation process is the first step towards achieving a good security monitoring plan and involves the appointment of a risk management team and its team leader from people with relevant skills and experience (Chaffey, 2006). This is an important process since it ensures that qualified people occupy relevant positions in the management plan. It can affect the whole process drastically if messed up with.

The second activity is to establish the context of the organization. This entails reviewing with the selected team the objectives of the organization; its stakeholders; criteria linking their objectives; key elements, items, or activities; and associated risks (Chaffey, 2006).

When reviewing the objectives of the organization, the team should identify the main issues of security concern. In addition, stakeholder’s reviews should be made aiming at identifying them and noting security threats when associating with the business. A communication plan can also be developed if deemed necessary.

Concerning the criteria, the team should highlight the criteria linking the objectives of the organization and stakeholders and review the need for conducting an extensive risk analysis.

The team should also review the key elements of the organization and identify risks. The importance of this process is that the risk management team gets to understand the organization better and all the risks associated with it. This goes along in ensuring that no risk is overlooked.

After establishing the context of the organization, the third step or activity to be conducted by the team is to carry out a risk analysis.

This encompasses activities such as assembling data on the risks highlighted and their consequences and analyzing the consequences with respect to the organization’s criteria (Chaffey, 2006). The team should also analyze the possibilities of experiencing the risks and make summaries for all elements on the assessment summary sheet.

Lastly, the team should combine both assessments for consequence and likelihood to obtain levels of associated risk. The risk analysis process is significant in the security monitoring plan since it enables the management team to understand the risks associated with the organization. This goes along in ensuring that they come up with relevant ideas regarding the management of the risks.

The fourth step after analyzing the risks is risk evaluation. This process involves steps such as ranking the risks according to the decreasing level of risk (Chaffey, 2006). The team can also plot the consequences and likelihood measures on a risk contour diagram if necessary or can draw a risk profile of the same.

Another important process in this step is to identify the extreme or high risks from the ranking created so that it can make a detailed risk action planning. High risks demand special attention due to the degree of threat they pose to the organization.

Low risks can then be identified and left to be addressed through routine management. For convenience and accountability purposes, a person from the team should be selected to be responsible for ensuring that each risk is addressed appropriately.

The risk evaluation process enables the team to, among other things, rank the anticipated risks according to their degree of risk. This is important since the team can plan well on risks to give special attention (high risks) and those to address through routine management (low risks).

After evaluating the risks and ranking them, the team should embark on planning for risk treatment. This can start by identifying feasible responses to the identified risks (Chaffey, 2006). In doing so, the team should identify and number feasible responses for all high risk and medium risks if resources allow.

Response strategies should include risk reduction, sharing, retention, and avoidance and also impact mitigation. Each response should then be described, and the main assumptions underlying them listed. Response description worksheets can be used for detailed analysis.

The second step in the planning process is to select the best response for each identified risk. This should be done by considering the benefits and costs associated with each response, including the indirect ones. After selecting the best response, the team is then supposed to develop risk action plans. Risk action plans should be developed for all high risks identifying actions, resources required, responsibilities, timing, and reporting methods.

This involves questions such as what is to be done, what to be used, who to it, when to be done, and how and to whom to report to. Regarding medium risks, risk management should be specified. Planning for risk treatment is an important procedure since it enables the team to come up with better mechanisms of dealing with the actual risks devoid of any loopholes (Le Vie, 2009).

The last step is to lay out the protocols for reporting, implementation, and monitoring (Chaffey, 2006). A formal risk management plan should be produced for the organization with a summary of risk action plans. This will ensure that everyone in the organization is aware of the plan and respects its demands.

Other people not incorporated in the risk management team can also get to know duties accorded to each member and know who to contact in case of a security lapse. The risk management team should also implement proposed responses and action strategies.

This should be done ensuring that every aspect of the responses and action plan adheres to the letter. The team should also monitor the implementation process and the subsequent running of the program. This can be done by assigning responsibilities for monitoring to specific individuals; specifying the reporting procedure, frequencies, and responsibilities.

It is also necessary for the team to arrange and implement periodic review and evaluation. Reporting in the risk management plan is vital due to the fact that it helps in availing feedback on the progress. It also ensures that individuals who are given responsibilities in the plan work harder since they are afraid of being reported negatively.

The implementation process is also relevant since it ensures that the formulated plan is put into action. Equally important is the monitoring process, which ensures that the program runs smoothly by detecting any problem that might be inherent (May 1998).

Sometimes, the reporting or monitoring process might detect risk in the organization. Such risks demand immediate attention. However, care must be observed since risks in big organizations can have several links to other areas, and several treatment actions can be available (Mehdi, 2004). The treatment actions may be relevant in their own right, but they may pose several secondary risks.

The secondary risks should also be analyzed and treated in turn. In case the risk is on the risk watch list, risk treatment progress and effectiveness should be reviewed, and adjustments made accordingly on risk action plans. High and medium risks which have been treated effectively should be re-evaluated and re-classified, or removed from the risk watch list if necessary.

Security monitoring is an important process in any organization or business. The process activities differ with the type of organization or business since some may require more security alerts than others. However, the process should, in general, layout mechanisms for detecting and dealing with security threats.

Integration and Testing

Testing is an essential part of system development, playing a vital role in the realization of an operational system and cannot be ignored. It involves the execution of the program using varied test data with the aim of realizing errors in the system and to make the system run smoothly.

The types of the test I used were functional testing (black box) which looked into the functionality of the system and the structural (white box) testing which I used to check into the logical structure of the system.

I finally used the bottom-up testing beginning with the unit tests through to the integration testing and to the system test to check whether the system components could perform as a single unit (Maye, 1999).

Justification of the Testing Techniques

These testing techniques are best because of the following reasons:

Due to the inaccessibility to the variety and advanced testing tools, I chose this because of its cost-effectiveness as it requires the Personal Computer with a monitor, mouse, and a keyboard as its tools. The software required to run the non-executable codes of the system is Microsoft Visual studio.

Bottom-up testing enhances the testing in bits that is manageable and hence high chances of error detection.

Black – Box and White

Two other testing strategies for delivering robust, high-quality Software are black-box and white-box testing. The term white-box testing indicates that we can “see” or examine the code as we devise test cases. The code is hidden in a black-box we cannot see through.

With black-box testing, although you do not know how the code works, the specification tells you what the code is supposed to do. You can create inputs, get output, and check the results for correctness without having access to the source code.

The answer to the second question is that white-box testing can bias the testing toward finding errors in the code. If the code does not implement the specification, white-box testing is that knowledge of how the code works can help you test more effectively by avoiding redundant test cases(Mitchell, 2004).

Because black-box and white-box testing are complementary, both techniques are used on large software projects. Because this text is about programming, we will focus our discussion on white-box testing. However, the techniques we discuss apply to black-box testing as well.

The key to successful, efficient testing is producing good test cases- test cases that are most likely to expose bugs. This task is hard because the input possibilities accepted by a nontrivial program are, for all practical purposes, infinite.

Thus we find a way to reduce the number of possible test cases into a smaller, more manageable set that is still effective at exposing any potential bugs. The process of weeding out unnecessary or redundant test cases is called equivalence partitioning (Nuseibeh and Easterbrook, 2000).


Research Design

To tackle the issue of text mining and how it influences customer loyalty, this research shall pursue an in-depth case evaluation study of the text mining activities of specific IT enterprises or companies. A case study approach is the recommended research method to apply because it allows the researcher to examine the actual conditions of the text mining company first hand and interact with the text miners.

Specifically, the evaluation will be done on at least three text mining enterprises with at least five years of operating experience. The choice of enterprises to study would be as diverse as possible in terms of target markets or clients served.

For example, one enterprise might have offer software products and services for small businesses, while another enterprise might be concentrating on the large institutions. The research will also accommodate enterprises focusing on various industries, as well. A varied mix of enterprises to study is required in order to avoid redundancies and duplications of data and information, and to arrive at a richer, more balanced perspective.

In pursuing the case evaluation, the researcher will first seek approval from the company’s management. Subsequently, formal letters of intent (LOI) will be sent to various text mining companies (Playle and Schroeder, 1996).

Research Population

In conducting the research, the proponent will target the owners, top management personnel, middle managers, and IT staff members directly involved in text mining and who have worked for the company for at least a year. The researcher will also include other relevant, non-IT personnel.

Fundamentally, the researcher intends to examine the specific team members handling the text mining initiatives for the companies. However, the researcher may also expand the scope of the research population to include external stakeholders such as IT and text mining experts, consultants, and analysts.

For this project, two major deliverables are expected. One is the actual online customer feedback program, which will become a major part of the company’s website. The other deliverable is a well-designed, complete survey questionnaire form to be presented online. Consequently, the project will require certain milestones to be achieved, given a one-month timeframe.

The first would entail a formal announcement of the project to stress its importance to relevant employees in the company. After this, a team orientation shall take place. In this orientation, the roles and responsibilities, specific targets, and tasks will be identified.

The first two milestones shall be done within the first week of the project. By the third week, the company should have accomplished the first draft of the survey template. Subsequently, the second draft of the survey should be done by the third week, as well as the preliminary online survey program.

By the fourth week, the final online survey program should be finalized, and the formal launching of the project should commence. After a month of implementing the project, the company can then process the survey reports culled from data gathered from online survey respondents.

Data Gathering Process and Treatment

As a qualitative research endeavor, this study will rely on extensive primary and secondary data research relevant to the enterprises to be studied. Primary research will include interviews of people involved the developing text mining.

Aside from primary data gathering activities, the researcher shall also gather secondary pieces of information about the company and the industry.

To accomplish these, the researcher will request for pertinent company data such as annual reports, text mining policies and procedures, operating manuals, and other internal documents relevant to the subject matter.

Consequently, the researcher will also consult academic journals, published books, academic research papers, reputable IT websites, and other sources of secondary information.

The final output of the research will be an in-depth case study. The case study shall profile the companies under the study, its operations, and text mining activities. The data derived from the primary and secondary research activities will be consolidated, and specific insights, conclusions, and strategic recommendations shall be proposed.

The results of the research shall be shared with company management. In effect, the findings and recommendations will also be made available for their perusal. The preliminary outline and flow of the case evaluation study can go as follows:

  1. Part 1. Profile of the companies– this part introduces the companies studied, their history and evolution; description and nature of operations, organizational structure, markets or clients served; type of software products and services provided, and operating and financial performance;
  2. Part 2. text mining Initiatives – this part elaborates on the text mining activities of the companies, their text mining frameworks, as well as text mining activities. The main bulk of the primary data shall be presented in this segment of the study, which shows a comparative analysis of the companies studied.
  3. Part 3. Issues and Trends – discusses the problems encountered in text mining in the past, and details the strategies, programs, activities, and tasks implemented by the companies to address the issues and strengthen their text mining processes;
  4. Part 4. Insights and conclusions – this segment consolidates the findings and lessons derived from the research based on the primary and secondary data gathered and examined;
  5. Part 5. Strategic recommendation – this part shows the researcher’s understanding of the text mining imperatives of the companies and specific recommendations to improve the company’s text mining initiatives

Data mining code

Careful programmers always retest before delivering Software even after the most trivial changes. The not-so-careful programmer runs the program with a few test inputs and then checks to see if the answers are correct. For the simplest programs, running a few tests may be enough, but this approach is hardly adequate even for a program of moderate complexity, and it surely will not be sufficient for a complex program of more than 1,000 lines.

There are strategies for testing the Software that you design and implement. Unfortunately, a thorough discussion of testing is beyond the scope o this book. There are many excellent texts devoted just to the theory, science, and art of testing software.

High-quality can be achieved only by applying to test along with a number of other software engineering techniques. These techniques include formal and informal reviews of the software specification, the proposed design or architecture of the system, as well as the actual code.

Indeed, software engineering studies have shown that a disciplined, systematic review process is more effective at avoiding bugs in shipped Software than testing. Another important element is the ability to manage and track evolving Software effectively. Source-code control systems and Software for trucking bugs are commonly used to help automate these tasks.

The first thing to realize about bugs and testing is that the earlier problems are found, the better. Software engineering studies have shown that the costs of finding and fixing a problem grow exponentially with time. Let me assume we are designing and coding the text mining function of a larger system we are working on. At this point in time, we are enmeshed in the details of the problem.

If a problem is discovered, because of our immediate familiarity with the code, we can most likely fix it quickly. On the other hand, if the problem crops up months later, we will need to re-familiarize ourselves with the code before we can diagnose and fix the problem.

It’s likely the method or class has grown over time, which again will make finding the bug harder. The process of testing a single module or function is known as unit testing. We must provide a test harness or test stub to exercise our code. A test harness is a small piece of code written to tests or exercises the code being developed.

It is tempering to discard these code fragments after testing is completed, but the modest time and effort it takes to save these stubs is an investment that will pay off later when a bug is uncovered. You will already have set harnesses available to neither help locate the bug and then ensure that the fix did nor break something else. We often create a test directory where the various test harnesses we have written for a project arte kept.

//class TEXT: simulates a text to be mined
Import java.Swing*;
public class TEXT extends ] Label ] {
//instance variables
private int value;
//class constant holding images of digits
private static final Icon images [ ] ={
new imageIcon (“digit0.gif”),
new ImageIcon (“digit.gif”),
new ImageIcon (“digit2.gif”),
new ImageIcon (“digit 3.gif”),
new ImageIcon (“digit4.gif”),
new ImageIcon(“digits5.gif”),
new ImageIcon (digit6.gif”),
new ImageIcon (“digit7.gif”),
new ImageIcon (“digit8.gif”),
new ImageIcon (“digit9.gif”)
// TEXT ( ): default constructor
TEXT (int i) {
setValue (i)}
//getValue ( ): get the TEXT value
public int get value ( ) {
return value; }
//setValue ( ):set the TEXT to a new value
public void setValue (int i) {
value =I;
setIcon (images [i] ); }

The code for the TEXT class, the code creates a Frame object, creates a TEXT with value zero, and adds it to the frame. And then makes the frame visible. When we compile and run this code. This code will be as follows;

//Test harness for class TEXT
import java.awt.*;
Import javax.Swing.*;
,public class TEXT test {
//instance constants and variables
private static final int WINDOW-WIDTH= 200;
PRIVATE STATIC FINAL INT – window-height = 125;
//main ( ): application entry point
public static void main (String [ ] args ) {
JFrame w1=new JFrame (“TEXT Test”);
W1.setlayout (new FlowLayout ( ) );
TEXT digit = new TEXT (0);
W1.SetVisible (true);}

Depending on what we are planning to do, this coding will be might be enough. However, for code used in a commercial application, we are not close to being done. To test this code thoroughly, we need to think about how the code will be used and what could possibly go wrong. What we need is a systematic approach to unit testing.

First off , we need test cases that demonstrate that the code satisfies its requirements.

What are the requirements of classes TEXT? Unfortunately, we did not formally write these down. In a real software project, the first step is to write down formal specifications of what a class is supposed to do. However, we do have an informal idea of the capabilities class TEXT should provide because it is to be used to develop clock type objects, calculators, and other objects requiring a numeric display.

Class TEXT should be capable of displaying the digits 0 through 9.

The value that a TEXT object is displaying can be changed.

Using this informal specification, we can design a more comprehensive set of tests. Basically we need to ensure that class TEXT supports displaying each digit correctly, and we should also include tests to make sure that we can write one test harness that does all this in a single run.

After some trial and err or to get the window sized correctly, we produce the code as shown below;

//GUI test harness for class TEXT
import java.awt.*;
import javax. Swing.*;
public class TEXT {
//instance constants and variables
private static final int WINDOW_WIDTH = 350
private static final int WINDOW_HEIGHT = 200
public static void sleep (int time) {
try {
Thread.sleep (time)
catch (Exception e) {
// No body }
//main ( ) : application entry point
public static void main (String [ ] args ) {
] Frame wl = new ] Frame ( “TEXT Test”);
w1. setLayout (new FlowLayout ( ) );
TEXT digit [ ] = new TEXT [10];
for (int I = 0; i.. 10; + +I ) {
digit [i] = new TEXT (i);
w1.setVisible (true);
sleep (5000);
for (int i=0; I …..10;++i) {
digit [i]. setValue (9-i);

The next segment of code creates an array to hold 10 TEXT objects. The for loop initializes array element i to have an TEXT that displays value i and the element to the window (Laplante, 2009)

Implementation text mining

Creates a new system-independent representation for a file named S. The name can be either an absolute pathname relative to the current working folder.

With a file, we can create a Scanner that is associated with the file of interest. For example, the following code, segment displays the first line from the file blurb.

Txt File file= new file (“blurb. Txt”);

Scanner filein= Scanner. Create (file)

String currentLine=FileIn.nextLine ( ) ;

System.out.printIn (current Line);

In the code segment, Scanner variable fileIn provides a stream view of the file referenced by file, while file is a representation of the file blurb. txt from the current working folder.

Because fileIn references a Scanner, the segment can use segment method next line ( ) to extract a line of text from the file. Program Fileister. Java expands upon this example to display the entire contents of a user-specified file.

The definition of method main ( ) of Filelister. java includes a program element that we have not needed before- a throws expression.

Public static void main (string [ ] args) throws 10 Exception {

The throws 10Exception expression indicates that the method may generate an unhandled exception.

An exception is an abnormal event that occurs during program execution. If a program does not have code that catches ( processes) the exception, then the program is terminated. Java requires methods that do not handle input and output exceptions must explicitly indicate this potentiality.

Method main ( ) begins by defining a Scanner std in that is a reference to the standard input stream. The reference is needed as the name of the file comes from the standard input stream. The reference is needed as the name of the file comes fro the standard input stream.

// set up standard input stream
Scanner Stdin = Scanner. Create (System. In);

The program then prompts and extracts the filename and then defines a File a variable file that references the associated file.

// determine file
String name = stdin. nextLine ( ) ;
File file = new File (name);

If the name represents a valid input file, the constructor produces a system-independent view of its filename. If the name does not represent a valid input file, the constructor throws an 10Exception.

The file is then used to initialize a Scanner variable fileIn that references the file stream of interest.

Scanner FileIn = Scanner. create (file)

The while loop begins by evaluating its test expression (fileIn.hasNext ( ) ).

If there is data in the file, then the test expression evaluates to true, and the next line is processed. If there is no data, the test expression is false, indicating that the file is empty.

For the case of an input being present, the loop body first extracts the next line and then displays it.

//get next line
String currentLine = fileIn.nextLine ( );
//display the line
System.out.printIn (current line) ;

Once the data in the file is exhausted, the test expression (fileIn.hasNext ( ) evaluates to false and the loop terminates.

A sample run of program FileReader. Java follows.

Filename: blurb. txt

It was a dark and stormy night; the rain fell in torrents….. except at occasional intervals, when it was checked by a violent gust of wind which swept up the streets ( for it is in London that our scene lies), rattling along the housetops, and fiercely agitating the scanty flame of the lamps that struggled against the darkness.

In this program run, file blurb.txt contains the opening sentence “ Paul Clifford” by Edward George Bulwer-Lytton (1830)

As another example of file processing, program FileAverage. java revists the average problem considered by NumberAverage. java. This console program produces the average of the numeric inputs from a user-specified file.

Suppose the file numbers. txt contains the following values 1, 4, 32, 5, 12, 28, 6, 21, 54, 4, 30, 54, 6, 9, 82, 11, 29, 85, 11, 28, 91, 1, 1, 1. Then when using that file, our program has the following input/output behavior.

Filename: numbers. Txt

Average file data value: 25. 25

Program FileAverage. Java begins in the same manner as

The program first defines a Scanner variable std in that is a reference to the standard input stream. It then prompts and extracts the filename. With the filename, the program defines a second Scanner variable fileIn that references the associated file.

From this point’s behavior is analogous to However, rather than processing the values from the file input stream referenced by stdin, the program processes the values from the file input stream referenced by fileIn. In addition,’s does not make use of a negative number sentinel-the operating system automatically provides an end-of-file sentinel.

Prior to any reading of the values, the number of values processed is 0 and the running total is 0.

//initially no values have been processed
int valuesprocessed = 0;
double valueSum= 0;

After the initialization of the two variables, the while loop processing begins. The while test expression evaluates whether there is an input to extract.

While (stdin.hasNextDouble ( ) indicates whether the next value (if any) in the input stream is a double value.

If test expression (stdin.hasNextDouble( ) ) evaluates to true, then there is an input value in need of processing. If the test expression evaluates to false, then there is no input to the process. Thus, the while loop iterates only if there is data to process.

For the case of a value being present, the body of the loop extracts the input value;

adds the value to running total; and increments the number of values processed.

While (fileIn.hasNextDouble ( ) ) {
//get the input value.
double value = fileIn.nextDouble ( );
ValueSum + = value;
// processed another value
++ values processed;

After the body completes, the test expression (stdin.hasNextDouble ( ) ) is revaluated to determine whether there is another value to process. When there are no more values to process, the loop terminates.

An if statement then determines whether an average can be computed. If the number of values processed is nonzero, then there is an average to calculate.

double average = valueSum/values processed;

System.out. printIn (“Average file data value: “ + average);

If there were no values to process, then a message is displayed to the standard error stream indicating the problem.

System.err.printIn(name +”: no values to average”);

This completes our analysis of We next turn our attention to the development of a simple API for keeping track of important characteristics of a data set.

A test harness code for the TEXT class will be used. The code creates a JFrame object, creates a TEXT with value zero, adds it to the frame, and then makes the frame visible.


In order to gauge the effectiveness and efficiency of key business processes, it was important to measure customer loyalty. Text mining may have provided an in-depth understanding of the customer; their characteristics had improved its overall performance.

Text mining was defined as a process of quantifying the effectiveness and efficiency of action. It is translating the complex reality of performance into a sequence of limited symbols that can be communicated and reproduced under similar circumstances.

There are few inherent characteristics for an effective Text mining system. These were inclusiveness (a measurement of all pertinent aspects), universality (allow for comparison under similar operating conditions), measurability, and consistency. In order to measure the efficacy of a process, it was important to benchmark the same. Benchmarking serves as an ideal tool for identifying improvement.

To address the shortcomings of performance measurement systems, many researchers and academicians had proposed different measurement methodologies. The performance measurement system provided a multidimensional tool to identify and facilitate the understanding of processes aligned to supply chain strategy.


The Software will be evaluated and monitoring by considering its general effects on both the firm and the industry, which include the benefits that it provides. The service should be able to realize the benefits of capital saving, time-saving, energy-saving, and enhance the general efficiency of the firm for it to be considered a success. The transitional outcomes will also be used to weigh up the success or failure of the project.

Proper education of staff members on the new service will guarantee a smooth transition from the former applications to the new applications. The manner in which the staff adopts the new service can also be used to analyze the success or failure of the project.

Since the new service has the effect of enhancing efficiency, quality, and innovation in the IT industry, the whole industry can be analyzed to determine the project’s success (Henderson-Sellers, 2002). The service can be wholly evaluated by considering the following:

  • The service scope and vision or objectives
  • Business objectives as well as requirements
  • Conceptual solution
  • Risk analysis
  • Deliverables
  • Resources required to install the service
  • initial schedule and budget estimates

Analysis of the above factors is regarded as stage one of the assessment criteria. The second stage usually referred to as scoping and assessment, follows the first stage (Ricadela, 2005). This stage involves:

  • Checking whether the service adheres to the first step
  • Identifying the risks of the service and compare them with benefits to determine the viability of the new service.
  • Assess the resources necessary to install the project and state whether the project is acceptable or not.
  • Assess whether the delivery time table is outlined and acceptable.

List of References

Bell, T, E, & Thayer, TA 1976, Software Requirements: Are they really a Problem? TRW Defense and Space Systems Group, Redendo Beach, California.

Boem, B 200, “Project Termination Doesn’t Equal Project Failure” Software Management.

Chaffey, D 2006, E-business and e-commerce management: strategy, implementation, and practice. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Henderson-Sellers, B 2002, “Process Metamodelling and Process Construction: Example Using the OEN Process framework (OPF)”, Annals of Software Engineering.14. 341-362. 2002.

Laplante, P 2009, Requirements Engineering for Software and Systems. Redmond, WA: CRC Press

Le Vie, D 2009, .

May, L 1998, Major Causes of Software Project Failures.

Maye, L 1999, Executive Reverse Logistics. Sage Publication, New York.

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