The Organizational Purposes of Businesses

Marks & Spencer Organizational Responsibilities through Its CSR Policy

Marks & Spencer has been an ardent supporter of the community events, and it has generously donated financial and material resources to charitable organizations. To remove poverty in the poor countries, it has provided free food packets. Besides, the organization encourages environmental-friendly practices in its business operations by reducing, reusing, and recycling the available resources. There are separate garbage containers for collecting food residue, plastic products, paper products, and tin cans. By segregating the garbage into biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste products, the organization helps in making organic compost from biodegradable resources while recycling the non-biodegradable resources. Marks & Spencer also helps in fundraising for the underprivileged children. By providing cash to the poor, the underprivileged children, the disabled people, and the senior citizens, Marks & Spencer’s Corporation has been aptly performing its role as a responsible corporate citizen.

Marks & Spencer as a corporate citizen is actively involved in building “green” parks which helps cushion the impact of damage to the environment, as well as send their employees to perform community service. All these improve the company’s image, ultimately improving their sales performance. Despite the ongoing recession, the company has been able to stay out of financial trouble because of being prudent. There is no excessive spending and all investment related to expansion on their retail units is ceased or at least scaled back.

Marks & Spencer has both internal and external stakeholders. The internal stakeholders are the employees, while the external stakeholders are the government, customers, shareholders, suppliers, and regulatory bodies such as the Stock Exchange. The company’s relationship with these stakeholders is governed by specific rules, which differ from one stakeholder to another.

Marks & Spencer owes its present and future success to skilled and motivated employees, who are able to accomplish the company’s objectives. In view of this, the employees play an important role in enhancing stakeholder value. The reference to employees has also been used in the context of their role in enhancing stakeholder value based on their communication with external stakeholders.

Marks & Spencer’s customers are possibly the most important stakeholders of the company. In this regard, the company has invested in excellent customer service, ensuring that customers’ specific needs are met in a timely manner. Further, to enhance the customer’s experience, the company prioritizes a customer’s safety, making it a core commitment for the company.

Marks & Spencer maintains a collaborative relationship with the government, which is also an important stakeholder. The company complies with all the government laws, while observing high ethical standards. However, the company maintains a neutral political stand, which governs its dealings with the government. With regard to political donations, for instance, the company does not donate to any government officials or political parties.

As for the shareholders, Marks & Spencer has committed itself to dealing with them according to the stock exchange’s listing rules. To facilitate communication with shareholders, Marks & Spencer has provided its shareholders with various means of accessing the company’s information, such as emails or printed materials.

The other category of stakeholders involves the suppliers who are crucial for the company’s success and reputation. The company has a policy of engaging and managing suppliers, whereby it is a requirement for employees to comply with the company’s procurement policies and procedures. One of the key aspects of these procedures is that the company should get the best value for money, in accordance with the needs of the business (Weiss 2008).

These stakeholders are appropriate for the company, since they contribute to the company’s success in different ways. A close analysis of the Marks & Spencer’s stakeholders clearly shows that failure to account for the needs of these stakeholders will have negative implications for the company. The employees of the company play an important role in ensuring that shareholder value is created, protected, and enhanced.

Customers are also crucial to the success of the company since they determine the company’s sales and profitability. The government and regulatory bodies are also important for Marks & Spencer’s success since the company’s failure to adhere to the set rules and regulations will affect the business negatively. The investors, as represented by shareholders in the paper, are also essential to the company’s success since they own the company. If they withdrew their financial investments from the company, then its financial status would be negatively affected. With regard to suppliers, they greatly influence a company’s efficiency and reputation; hence their contribution to the company’s success cannot be underestimated (Weiss 2008).

Oldham Police and Different Stakeholders

To achieve the intended goals of the Oldham Police, both the external and the internal stakeholders must cooperate and work jointly to ensure that they make meaningful progress. While internal stakeholders refer to the police officers, inmates, auxiliary staff and the management, the external stakeholders refer to the government, the society, and the NGOs. Since decisions by the stakeholders determine how the operations of the station will be, it is advisable for all the stakeholders to play their roles effectively to avoid inefficiency.

Each stakeholder must play his role effectively to make the living conditions in prisons bearable, which, in turn, can help prisoners change their attitude (Siegel 2009).

The role of the government is to help maintain law and order; the police apprehend offenders and take them to police station before taken to court. The government arrests and keeps dangerous people from the society with the intention to protect the citizens and rid the society of bad characters. Although the government has managed to improve the living conditions for police officers and provide the necessary equipment for work, cases of violence, sexual assaults, and failures continue to exist in Oldham Police.

The government can be accredited for its efforts to improve living conditions of the people and make life favorable for all. The police has also been responsible for the improvements marked in the Oldham Police. There have, however, been some awful incidences in the Oldham Police that called for more improvements. Some of the main problems affecting the Oldham Police include brutal punishments, drug abuse, sexual assaults, food crisis, and overcrowding. Although the levels of violence have been tremendously decreasing each year, it would be improper to infer that it is free from brutality, since there are still reported cases.

It is the responsibility of the Oldham Police to ensure that all the suspects are treated equitably, and that their rights are preserved irrespective of their origin, race, or financial status. They should ensure that the newcomers are protected from being assaulted by the older folk (Smith & Cole 2007).

The government has had a positive influence on the Oldham Police since budget was increased. Due to the congestion, it is very easy for the suspects to contract contagious diseases since they are in constant contact with each other. This problem calls for the intervention of both the government and Non-Governmental Organizations as external stakeholders to assist the management and improve the conditions of the Oldham Police. Despite this condition, the facility is more improved than before and much of this has been facilitated by the NGOs.

Conclusively, the internal and external key stakeholders of the Oldham Police should be engaged in every preemptive effort. At an operational level, the prevention of crime presents a considerable challenge whereby the level of risk rises in relation to the criminal approach of the target.

Oxfam and Its Stakeholders

A stakeholder is any person or organization that has a stake or interest in the proposed policy. Oxfam has many stakeholders such as employees, donors, government, and society. Employees are fundamental resources for Oxfam and their talents, skills and expertise should be identified and developed. Employee development should, therefore, be a core focus for all stakeholders. Teamwork and mentorship activities should also be encouraged.

Oxfam has enhanced its communication with donors to adapt its marketing activities to meet their changing needs. Keeping close contact and communication with customers has kept Oxfam on the forefront (informed) of the products and service needed by customers. This has enabled it to give the right products and service to its customers, thus enhancing its relations with customers (Freeman 2003).

Since the market is dynamic, Oxfam has adapted its marketing activities to meet changing customer needs through development of schemes that well illustrate the tangible benefits of the level of donations made. With such schemes in place, customers are well informed of how their donations or income from sale of goods and services are spent. When customers buy retail items to be donated to people living in poverty they are in return given a card as a token of the gift, which they can send to a friend. This has made Oxfam adapt to the changing customer needs in the dynamic market.

Customers donating to charities have different typical behaviors. One group of customers only makes donations depending on the economic status. At times of economic crisis, such group of customers may not have a lot of disposable income which affects their behaviors by ceasing to donate. Another group bases its behavior on loyalty and customer relation. This means that the way they are handled, how their donations are used and accounted for making them either come back or fail to come back. Charities need to be transparent and accountable to reach such customers and create long-term relations with them (Pollert 2005, p 218).

Oxfam has developed several initiatives to promote its marketing activities to increase donations. It has promoted its marketing by enhancing public awareness of its work. It has maintained an active profile and provided varied channels to markets to ensure that its target customers have varied opportunities; means of making donations or accessing and buying its goods and services. One of the ways in which Oxfam has diversified its marketing channels to reach its target customers is by introduction of an online sales service. This has ensured prevention of customer overlap and provision of information where the customers can browse and make purchases or donations online. The customers can also access information on goods and services online and make purchases or donations from Oxfam stores.

To increase donations, Oxfam has formed links with socially aware organizations, such as Marks and Spencer (M&S), in order to provide vouchers to be spent in M&S stores in exchange for second hand M&S clothes donated to Oxfam shops. It has also formed links with music groups and festivals like Arctic Monkeys and encouraged them to use its outlets to distribute music and, in turn, widen its range of target donors (Pollert 2005, p 222).

By developing long-term relationships with donors, Oxfam stands to benefit in the following ways. First, Oxfam is likely to enhance its reputation to the public and other donors. Developing long-terms relations with them means that Oxfam is transparent and accountable for all the donations given by donors, and this is what keeps the relation with these contributors. The donors are likely to provide more donations to keep the charity going and enhance its service to the needy. Others are also likely to be attracted, which will increase Oxfam’s income, thus enabling it to reach a wide group of the needy. Public trust and confidence through its good reputation will enable it to carry out its mandate with minimum disturbance, resistance, opposition, and protests from the public. Its operations/service delivery to the public is likely to be very smooth (Drucker, 2004). Developing long-term relations with donors also enhances stability, this is through constant funding, donations and purchases of goods and services. At times of economic crisis and low disposable income, Oxfam is likely to experience less shortage as compared to charity organizations with no long-term relations with donors.

In developing and making links with other organizations in order to attract more donors and communicating its massages, Oxfam is likely to encounter the following advantages and disadvantages (Alatrista & Arrowsmith 2004, p 538).

One of the advantages of linking with other organizations is the increase in market share. Organizations like socially aware organizations or sport festivals and groups reach a very wide level of individuals among them being donors. Through them, Oxfam will also reach this kind of people and widen its target market share, at the same time strengthen its customer base. Such organizations will also help spread the message on the charity work of Oxfam, and thus increase public awareness. When more target customers become aware of what Oxfam charity does, they are likely to donate to the charity and enhance its work. Therefore, Oxfam is also likely to benefit from gaining more donations (Freeman 2003).

Linking with other organizations is one way of expanding marketing channels and enhancing market activities to reach a wide scope of customers. This is possible with organizations that have good reputations. However, the disadvantage is that organizations linking with Oxfam turns out to be of bad reputation, Oxfam is likely to lose a lot of donors and customers. The donors and customers are likely to distance themselves from associating with Oxfam for its link with organizations with bad reputation. Associating with such an organization will portray a negative image to the public with the notion that Oxfam also has the same reputation. This will greatly diminish its market share and reduce donations (Pollert 2005, p 225).

Another disadvantage is that organizations linking with Oxfam may decide to impose conditions and rules that may affect how Oxfam discharges its charitable work. This deprives it of its independence as an organization, and this is likely to affect its service delivery to the public. Disagreements on certain issues also derail decision making process and mutual agreement, which also affects service delivery. In case the organization breaches the agreements made, Oxfam is likely to suffer a lot and take time to recover, especially when such organization fails to engage in marketing of Oxfam’s products as agreed (Freeman 2003).


Stakeholder analysis is an important process in any given organization, since it helps policy makers to identify groups or individuals that have positive or negative implications for operations. This helps them reduce any impediments to the successful implementation of company’s policies. With regard to Marks & Spencer, Oxfam and Oldham Police have various stakeholders, all of them are important for the success of their operations. However, they need to evaluate how these stakeholders affect their operations, adopting approaches that are relevant to each stakeholder. At the same time, this will help them identify potential stakeholders based on the overall objectives of the business, who will add value to the business. In the end of the analysis, companies should always strive to ensure that the relationships between them and their stakeholders are mutually beneficial.

Reference List

Alatrista, J. & Arrowsmith, J. 2004, Managing employee commitment in the not-for-profit sector. Personnel Review, 33(5), pp. 536-548.

Drucker, P. 2004, Managing the non-profit organization, New York, Taylor & Francis.

Freeman, R. 2003, Customer relations in business, London, Routledge.

Pollert, A. 2005, Operations of Non-Profit making business organizations and bodies. Development Review Journal, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 217-226.

Siegel, L. 2009, Introduction to Criminal Justice, Westport: Cengage Learning.

Smith, C. & Cole, G. 2007, Criminal Justice in America, New York, Cengage Learning.

Weiss, J. 2008, Business Ethics: A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach, Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

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